Ear Training

    Atonal Dictation
    Question: An atonal dictation question is part of the exam I'm preparing for. Do you have any advice on how to prepare for it? I really don't know how I'm...
    Chord Ear Training
    Question: How can I readily identify any chord when played? Albert's reply: The first step in chord ear training is to learn to identify the basic types of...
    Ear Training and Singing
    Question: Good day Albert, I am currently practicing for my Grade 8 UNISA examination. I am not struggling with all the ear training exercises. As a matter...
    Ear Training for Non-Singers
    Question: Actually I am a dance student, but I know my inner ear could use training—just to be a better listener. What kind of inner ear training...
    Ear Training in Daily Piano Practice
    Question: Hello! What are your suggestions for how I could ear train during my daily piano regimen? Currently, I am simply memorizing the c4-c5 C Major range...
    Ear Training with the Radio
    Question: For singing I do breathing exercises before bed. I believe in practising breathing and listening together because the listening helps to open the...
    Ear Training: Is your musical brain "wired" backwards?
    Our brains naturally navigate towards what we assume is the easiest way to accomplish any given task. But what if I told you that what might seem easiest...
    Essential Ear Training
    There is one ear training skill that every musician and every music student, including absolute beginners, must develop. It should be done from the very...
    Hard of Hearing and Learning Piano
    Question: I am hard of hearing... not really bad... but enough that I cannot hear very high soft sounds. I really want to learn to play but everyone keeps...
    Hearing Chord Progressions
    Question: I play the guitar which is a string instrument just like the piano, and I play in a little church band. Before I started going to this church I...
    Hearing Multiple Voices
    Question: How is it possible to hear two or more voices at the same time, e.g. each voice in a fugue, with the so-called inner ear? I was once told that one...
    How to Recognize Intervals
    Question: Mr. Frantz, First of all I'd like to thank you for your amazing site. Everything you wrote and explained there has served me considerably.
    How to Write Melodies
    Question: Hi Albert, I have for a while now trained to develop relative pitch and now I can recognize every interval when I hear them but I have reached a...
    Interval Ear Training
    Question: How can you learn to recognize intervals by ear? Albert's reply: There are several methods of interval ear training. The most common is to...
    Memorizing Long Melodies
    Question: One problem faced by my students in aural tests is memorizing a long melody. Any tips please? Thanks. Albert's reply: The most important thing in...
    Missing Notes in Ear Training?
    Question: Here's one I can't explain... in specific ear training where the student is asked to do chord identification (major/minor with inversion) using...
    Music Ear
    Question: How can ear training help singers? Albert's reply: It is essential for all musicians to train their ear, since music is sound after all and it is...
    My Ear Training Exercises
    Question: In my ear training exercises, I can currently hear every scale interval in my mind's ear in every key. I am wondering about the minor intervals. I...
    Play Piano by Ear
    It is a shame that many traditional piano teachers tend to look down upon efforts to play piano by ear. After all, music is sound, and the better our aural...
    Playing Piano by Ear
    Playing piano by ear is among the most essential of musical skills, yet it is generally looked down upon by teachers of traditional reading-based approaches...
    Problems with Ear Training
    Question: Hi Albert, My name is Shane. I'll keep this brief. I'm hunting around for different ear training methods. I've been through a bunch of stuff but...
    Singing Scale Degrees
    Question: Thank you very much for this website—it has helped me tremendously. My question goes for the Intervals lesson, where you stated that to learn...
    Solfège: An Introduction
    Solfège is a system for singing notes. If you're familiar with the famous Rogers and Hammerstein song 'Do-Re-Mi' from The Sound of Music, you already know...
    Voice Leading and Inner Voices
    Question: I would like to know more about proper voice leading. I can hear each separate voice in a piece and I can hear chord progressions, but this seems...
    When Do People Usually Start Playing by Ear?
    Question: I know people usually say it depends on the person. Well, I want to know the average year of when a person who take lessons starts playing by ear....

Piano Practice

    Are Editorial Fingerings Compulsory?
    Question: Is it essential to play or to require my students to play all indicated fingerings in early advanced pieces, i.e., Chopin's Fantasie-Impromptu Op....
    Counting Rhythm
    Question: Just a quick question re: counting notes... timing. I'm immediately interested in finding help in proper counting of various notes. I struggle with...
    Different Rhythms in Different Hands
    Question: Okay, so I haven't taken piano lessons for 5 years and I stopped as a beginner so I'm not very good and I don't know all that much. But for...
    Effects of Age on Piano Practice
    Question: I used to play when I was younger. I am 52 now but still love to play (it's innate). Unsupportive family members restricted me from practicing as...
    Efficient Piano Practice: 10 Expert Tips
    Everybody is under intense time pressure these days, and musicians are no exception. In reply to the many requests about efficient piano practice, here are...
    Emotions in Practice and Performance
    Question: Hello Albert. A performer's emotion(s) play an essential part at every performance. What can you say about managing moods (good or bad) during...
    Hands Separate vs. Hands Together
    Question: Dear Albert: I am a beginning piano student and I am curious about something. It is always stressed that one should practice hands separate, then...
    Hands Separate vs. Hands Together
    Question: Dear Albert: I am a beginning piano student and I am curious about something. It is always stressed that one should practice hands separate, then...
    How Long Does it Take to Learn Music?
    Question: If a professional musician was given an advanced piece of classical music of say 15 pages, something they had never seen before, how long would it...
    How Long Should a Beginner Practice?
    Question: I was wondering, how long should a beginner practice? Albert's reply: How long to practice piano depends on the student's age. For very young...
    How Many Pieces Should I Practice?
    Question: Having a full time non-musical job, I can only practice on the piano only as much as I can after work. At this point, as the momentum rises and my...
    How Slow Is Slow?
    Question: Hi Albert, First of all, thank you so much for putting all this information up online, there's so much here and it's very helpful.
    How to Learn a Fugue
    With their multiplicity of interweaving, interdependent voices perpetually reacting to one another, deceptively appearing in backwards guise, upside-down, ...
    How to Learn Music
    Question: How do you go about learning a new piece from scratch? Do you advise memorizing and analyzing the piece away from the piano before actually playing...
    How to Measure Your Progress
    Question: Hi Albert, I always look forward to your weekly lessons! My question today is, since piano practice is such a lonely (I just mean that you do it...
    How to Organize Practice
    Question: Dear Albert, I usually practise for about 3 hours a day, with the odd day on which I do either 4 or—if I am too busy—2 and a half...
    How to Practice Polyrhythms
    Question: What is your advice for playing polyrhythms? For example, simple polyrhythms like triplets against duplets or quadruplets and odd ones (Chopin's...
    Insecurity and Mistakes
    Question: I just want to say that I love your website. My name is Daniel. I'm Brazilian, 22 years old and I've been studying since I was 18, which is little...
    Is Memorizing Each Piece Necessary?
    Question: Is it imperative that you study a piece until you memorize it before moving to another piece? Example: In my books that I am working from I will...
    Learning and Memorizing Music
    Question: Hi Albert, I'm beginning to work on some quite difficult pieces now, as I've finished the 8 grades of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of...
    Learning Complex Pieces Quickly
    Question: Hello, I have to learn Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach's Fantasia in D minor in one week, so I was wondering if you have any tips on learning a complex...
    Legal Practicing Hours
    Question: What is the law about practicing hours? Albert's reply: Noise laws vary by city. In London, there's a 1996 Noise Act that specifies 11 PM to 7 AM...
    Making Mistakes in Practice
    Learning a piece of music successfully requires avoiding mistakes in practice. How we practice is how we learn, and how we learn is how we perform. If we...
    Mastering Scales: The Thrill of the Challenge
    Question: Hi Albert, For the past year, I've been concentrating on trying to develop and memorize the 'feel' of the major and minor scales in both hands...
    Memorizing Music Without Playing It
    Question: How do you memorize a piece of music without using muscle memory? Albert's reply: There are two poles to learning music without playing it. The...
    Mental Practice and Visualization
    Question: There is a blind Japanese pianist I found on YouTube, his name is Nobuyuki Tsujii. Truly remarkable, he was born blind. No doubt you probably know...
    Mental Practice
    Question: I have a question regarding mentally practicing the piano. The last expert tip on the Efficient Piano Practice page suggests to study away from the...
    Motivation and Concentration
    Question: I find myself taking constant breaks, procrastinating, if you will. It takes a certain amount of motivation to start my practicing. I am a lover of...
    Musebook Metronome
    On a recent trip to the US I discovered I had left my metronome behind. I nearly bought another one until I discovered the musebook metronome for iPhone and...
    My Practice Routine
    Question: Hello Albert, I often read about practicing on your website, and you write a lot about how to practice efficiently, and how you get the best...
    Piano Bench Height
    Question: I was wondering if you could give specific suggestions as to the height of a piano bench. I have a fixed-height wooden bench that doesn't match the...
    Piano Piece Memorization
    Question: Is there such a thing as effective memorization technique on any given piano piece? I only know memorization through repetitions.
    Piano Practice Discipline
    Question: I have a 7-year-old son who is talented and who has got a good teacher, but is not methodical or disciplined. How do I instill discipline in him?
    Piano Practice
    This article presents essentials of piano practice; actual piano practice techniques will be dealt with separately. What do you imagine when practicing...
    Piano Practicing and Phrasing
    Question: Hello Albert, I read something you wrote under the heading Piano Practice and subheading Accuracy and quote, 'we systematically learn our pieces...
    Piano Transcription
    Question: Why didn't you include transcription? I've always thought that it was an important part of learning an instrument. Albert's reply: You're...
    Playing in All Keys
    Question: Hello Albert, Your site and its contents along with your explanations are exceptional, and I am enjoying reading it all. It seems to speak to me.
    Practicing Away from the Instrument
    Question: Is it possible to practice piano playing without a piano? Just like athletes need to go to gym to strengthen their muscles.
    Practicing for Several Concerts at the Same Time
    Question: I'm a retired church musician (organist/choirmaster) who's been asked to play eight noon recitals at a public library over the course of next year...
    Practicing Mistakes
    Question: What do you mean by 'mistakes are 'unwelcome guests' and we are to check them at the door' (quotation from your Piano Practice page)?
    Practicing Music vs. Scales
    Question: I am a beginning piano player and want to start on a path to being a good piano player. I have started practicing scales, but it bores me to death....
    Practicing Music vs. Scales
    Question: I am a beginning piano player and want to start on a path to being a good piano player. I have started practicing scales, but it bores me to death....
    Practicing Scales
    Question: Thank you for putting up this site! It has been really helpful!! However, I get rather confused when it comes to the topic of scales, in certain...
    Practicing to Eliminate Mistakes
    Question: Hi, I want to know how to learn to play a piece without making mistakes. I have tried practicing the piece over and over. And when I am at home...
    Practicing with Emotion
    Question: What about feelings taking over you by what you listen to before you produce the idea on the piano? Until what point can a pianist deal with...
    Preparing a Piece for a Concert
    Question: I am a late learner (75), probably grade 2 or 3. I am to play in a concert in 3 weeks' time. I will play the first and third movements of...
    Returning to the Piano
    Question: Hello Albert, I studied piano for five years, and the course was focused on jazz, blues, bossa nova, and other Brazilian styles. These styles are...
    Singing from Memory
    Question: Do you have any tips for singing from memory? I can never remember it all and usually get stuck in the middle. Albert's reply: It's most important...
    Staying Focused
    Question: I can get easily distracted from playing piano, whether it be my phone going off, hearing the TV or going to the computer and listening to a song...
    Using Practice Time Wisely
    Question: Albert, with little time to study every day, do you think it's wrong to wake up, sit down and study a piece or is it necessary to do at least a...
    Using the Piano Pedals
    Question: I want to knew when pedals are used and how can I guess their use? Also, there are many signs in the sheet music which are difficult to understand;...
    Warming Up Before Practicing
    Question: Do you do or suggest any kind of physical warm-ups (non-musical) such as hand or arm stretches before practicing or playing (or after as well)? I...
    Warming Up for Lessons and Performing
    Question: What is the best way to quickly warm up or get acclimated to an unfamiliar piano? That is, if you have, say, five minutes to prepare, what do you...
    Warming Up the Hands
    Question: Hello dear teacher, I had some problems and sickness and I couldn't practice at all! I want to start again but my hands are too cold to play after...
    Which Hand to Watch?
    Question: I've been a guitarist for 30+ years and have always watched my left hand, and rarely my right. And now that I am learning/practicing the major and...

Reading Music

    Bass Clef
    This video is an excerpt from my course, How to Read Sheet Music. Let's take a look at the F clef. Here is the symbol:
    Beethoven's Fifth
    Question: I really hate to bother you with something so trivial, but I am trying to play a game and I'm stuck since I don't know anything about music. I need...
    Bottom Number of Time Signature
    Question: What does the bottom number of the time signature tell you about? Albert's reply: In simple meter, the top number of a time signature tells us the...
    Changing Fingerings
    Question: When sight reading new music by professional piano players, are the fingering positions subject to interpretation or are the fingerings 'set in...
    Compound Meter
    One of the more confusing aspects of learning to read music for many music students is compound meter. Also called compound time, I've seen virtually all...
    Double Flats
    Question: I am learning the Schubert Impromptu Op. 90, No. 3. Everything was going great until page 5. That's when the double flats came into play. I need...
    Finding the Notes on the Keyboard
    Question: How does one really remember to look at the key note on paper and find where it is on the piano? I want to be able to see the note and play it on...
    Finger Numbers
    Question: I can read notes but I don't know which finger I'm going to use with that note. I just wish to have sheet music with finger number on every note or...
    Grand Staff
    The grand staff (also called 'great stave' in British English) is a pair of clefs connected by a brace and used in particular for keyboard music:
    Half Note
    A half note (also called a minim in British English) is a note in traditional Western music notation that is notated with an open note head and a stem.
    How to Find the Melody
    Question: I was wondering if there is a trick to figuring out the melody line on a score. Is it always the top notes? What happens when it goes to the left...
    How to Read Piano Notes
    Learning to read piano notes need not be drudgery! This article will introduce you to the basics of piano music notation. The first thing you'll notice when...
    How to Read Piano Tabs
    Want to learn how to read piano tabs? Then look no further! Piano tablature notation is designed for simple music, and it's easy to learn.
    How to See the Music
    Question: Hi Mr. Frantz, I thoroughly enjoy reading your website. I have played single-clef instruments most of my life with very little formal piano...
    How to Write Music Notation
    Question: How do you write music notation of songs or hymns? How do you concentrate on musical beats? Albert's reply: If you're new to writing music, you...
    Learn Music Notes
    This lesson will allow you to learn music notes by introducing you to music notation. In it, I summarize the essentials of the system of notes and how you...
    Learn to Sight Read Music
    Question: I learned piano through the Suzuki method, and when it came to piano theory, I was aurally-dominant enough to fake it, too lazy to want to learn,...
    Ledger Lines
    Question: I know the notes are E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F, but how do I tell what the note is when it goes over or under the lines? Albert's reply: You're...
    Piano Note and Length of Stem
    Question: Mr. Frantz, I'm so glad I found your website. It is very professional and beautiful—obviously a lot of work and thought went into it. The...
    Piano Tablature
    Piano tablature (or 'piano tab' for short) is an abbreviated method of music notation. While used for modern pop music, the idea is nothing new: interestingly,...
    Playing by Ear and Sight Reading
    Question: When I was 8, in 1974, my mother sent my to the Cleveland Music School Settlement, in hopes I would learn to read notes to play the piano. I never...
    Quarter Note
    A quarter note (also called a crotchet in British English) is a note in traditional Western music notation that is notated with a solid note head and a stem.
    Reading Intervals vs. Notes
    Question: My daughter is currently learning (almost a year now) and I am learning with her. My challenge is music notes. When I play, I am kind of simply...
    Reading Intervals vs. Notes
    Question: My daughter is currently learning (almost a year now) and I am learning with her. My challenge is music notes. When I play, I am kind of simply...
    Reading Ledger Lines
    Question: I am having so much trouble reading the part where Schubert departs from the lovely, melodic scenario at the beginning and begins this dark...
    Reading Multiple Voices
    Question: Does your course also cover how to properly read and practice the multiple voices found in almost every piano/vocal/chord sheet music I see? I have...
    Reading Music
    How to Read Sheet Music course available now! All musicians need to learn to read music if they are to make the most of their ability. The entire history of...
    Reading Notes: Which Note Is Which?
    Question: My main problem is identifying and remembering which note is which. Is there any special way I could train my mind and brain to recognize the notes...
    Reading Piano Music
    For most piano students, reading piano music is one of the biggest hurdles in learning to play the piano. I've therefore assembled a series of practical, ...
    Reading Piano Notes
    Question: I just had my piano lesson yesterday and my teacher asked me to play this song and I did, and he realised that I was reading the numbers above the...
    Reading Sheet Music
    In my experience, reading sheet music is usually the greatest challenge for most piano students. The difficulties can be mitigated some by understanding that...
    Sharp and Flat Together
    Question: How do you play a note with both sharp and flat symbols in front of it? Albert's reply: There shouldn't be a note with both sharp and flat signs...
    Sight Reading and Timing
    Question: Hello, I have been playing with the piano now for four years. The first two years I have been teaching myself while my daughter was taking...
    Sight Reading and Training the Eye
    Question: I have a question about sight reading and how it relates to piano theory. I can sight read a normal piece pretty well, but only at a slow tempo.
    Sight Reading Methods
    Question: What do you think is the best method for training students for sight reading? Somebody said that one of the methods is practicing sight reading......
    Simple Meter
    'Dictionary definitions' of simple meter (also called simple time) tend to be so confusing that they are of very limited use to beginning music students.
    Solfège Note Names
    Question: Hello, I am a beginner at playing the keyboard and I have just been learning to read notes. My teacher has given me notes to practice - like...
    Synchronizing the Hands
    Question: Is there any 'rule of thumb' regarding playing notes in both clefs, at the same time? In other words, do the stems need to line up or do the notes...
    Time Signatures
    A fundamental component of music rhythm, time signatures display the meter of a piece or section of music. A time signature is composed of a top number and a...
    Training the Eyes
    Question: I have a few students who have great difficulty reading the notes on the staff. It has been brought to my attention that it may be due to a...
    Treble Clef
    This video is an excerpt from my course, How to Read Sheet Music. This symbol is called a G clef:
    What Is Music Notation?
    'Music notation' is a contradiction in terms. Music is heard, while notation is seen. Notating music is thus a translation from one sensory modality to another.
    Whole Note
    A whole note (also called a semibreve in British English) is the longest note typically found in music notation. It is notated with only an open note head...
    Writing in Fingerings
    Question: I am returning to playing the piano after 20 years. I took lessons from the age of 8 until I was 17. My problems are fingering, sight reading and...

Sheet Music

    Bach Prelude in C
    One of the most popular pieces among piano lovers, Bach's Prelude in C major (BWV 846) is also a prelude to the Well-Tempered Clavier as a whole. It started...
    Beyond Urtext Editions
    Question: Hello Albert, I read with great interest your articles about Urtext Editions and Music Notation. I've been playing the piano for most of my life...
    Christmas Piano Music
    This holiday, I endeavored to compile a list of Christmas piano music by the great composers. The task turned out to be much more difficult than I had...
    Deck the Halls Sheet Music
    Question: How do we know which chords to use in Deck the Halls in key of C? Albert's reply: I've created a simple arrangement and have made the 'Deck the...
    Free Piano Chords
    In response to popular demand, key-notes is happy to add Free Piano Chords to its growing list of free resources. (It should go without saying that these and...
    Free Popular Piano Sheet Music
    Many hobby pianists are looking for free popular piano sheet music online, and I wanted to explore the issue with key-notes readers.
    Für Elise Sheet Music
    By popular demand, key-notes is offering the Für Elise sheet music for free download! This special, professionally typeset edition has been prepared just...
    Happy Birthday Sheet Music
    By very popular request, key-notes is happy to offer the Happy Birthday sheet music for free download! This no-frills arrangement is easily accessible and...
    Kindle Sheet Music
    As a member of the very first generation to grow up with personal computers, the prospect of digital sheet music has more than piqued my interest. I recently...
    Moonlight Sonata Sheet Music
    key-notes is pleased to present a beautiful new edition of Beethoven's 'Moonlight' Sonata! The first movement, available for free download, was edited by...
    Moonlight Sonata Simplified
    Question: Can I get easier sheet music for the Moonlight Sonata first movement? Albert's reply: The first movement of the Moonlight Sonata is really already...
    Mozart Piano Concerto K. 175 Cadenzas
    Question: Albert, Do you know where I might find a written out cadenza for W.A. Mozart's Concerto No. 5 in D Major, K. 175? I'm aware that Mozart wrote one...
    Mozart Piano Concerto K. 175 Cadenzas
    Question: Albert, Do you know where I might find a written out cadenza for W.A. Mozart's Concerto No. 5 in D Major, K. 175? I'm aware that Mozart wrote one...
    Out-of-Print Sheet Music
    I'd like to share with key-notes readers the best imaginable resource for out-of-print sheet music ever. Its mouthful of a name, the International Music...
    The Entertainer Sheet Music
    key-notes is pleased to offer The Entertainer sheet music for free download! Composed in 1902 by ragtime pioneer Scott Joplin, The Entertainer is among the...
    Urtext Editions
    Question: In your opinion, which are the best urtext editions with regards to fingering, paper quality, critical commentary, etc.? Thank you,

Piano Technique

    Accuracy on Black Keys
    Question: As an adult (aged 54) student of the piano, I have encountered lots of difficulty achieving stability (and/or a firm grip) on black keys and have...
    Becoming a Confident Performer
    Question: Hi, I am a pianist and also a student, and I wonder every day in my life, why don't I 'get there'? I mean, I play the pieces, I play recitals and...
    Brahms 51 Exercises
    Question: Any fingering suggestions for Exercise 1a and 1b? Albert's reply: This exercise is designed to be played with a consistent fingering, even though...
    Building an Advanced Piano Technique
    Question: My technique goes just so far and then I get stuck. What can you offer in the way of determining fingerings, being able to move about the keyboard...
    Changing Hand Positions Without Looking
    Question: I am trying to learn how to move from octave to octave without looking at my hands. For example, I begin with both hands on the keyboard with the...
    Chopin Etude Op. 10, No. 4
    Question: Hi, I would like to have some explanation about the third measure of the Chopin Etude, Op. 10, No. 4. I already play it up to tempo, but only on...
    Chromatic Minor Thirds
    Question: I am in urgent need of the finger settings for the following scale: A-sharp chromatic major—double note thirds for both hands. Can you please...
    Chromatic Sixths Fingering
    Question: Hello Albert, It's good of you to help me, thanks. Like you, I am an extremely 'late starter' but I feel this is my time now to achieve my dreams....
    Collapsing 5th Finger Joint
    Question: As I depress the piano key using the 5th finger, the 2nd knuckle (middle knuckle) collapses and the first knuckle (nail knuckle) over-curls to...
    Developing Fingering Confidence
    Question: I am a senior citizen who has dreamed of learning to play the piano since childhood. I have learned a lot on my own, and started taking lessons two...
    Dynamic Balance and Voicing
    Question: Whats the best way of practicing to make the left hand give a lower sound than your right hand? And to make a lower sound in one finger of another...
    Fast Octaves
    Question: I have problems with playing the fast octaves at the end of the third movement of Schubert's Sonata in A minor D. 784 (Op. 143).
    Finger Speed
    Question: I've read a few times on your site about how everyone has a limit to how fast they can play. This really bothers me. Like I know it's about playing...
    Finger Staccato
    Question: Hi Albert, My question relates to staccato double notes played softly. Is finger staccato the best technique for this? Albert's reply: It's not...
    Finger Suppleness
    Question: Hello Albert, Firstly, thanks for the lessons and advice coming in regularly, it certainly is a great help and also scary to realize how much I...
    Fingering Myths or Facts?
    Question: My question is, how important is 'correct' fingering when playing? I recently downloaded (THANK YOU) your scales reference, which showed all twelve...
    Hand Span and Technique
    Question: Hello. I too am a late beginner—started just before I turned 18. So far I have managed to play Mozart's Rondo Alla Turca and some other easy...
    Horowitz's Octave Technique
    Question: Mr. Frantz, I'd like to start by mentioning how impressed I am with your website. It is extremely informative and comprehensive.
    How to Play Fast
    Question: I have problems with fast, scale-like, semi-quaver (16th notes) passages, which are typical in Mozart sonatas for example. I can't control them at...
    How to Play Piano
    Question: Dear Albert, The seems a pretty dumb question, but it's one of my major problems playing the piano: How do I play piano, without losing security?...
    Improving Piano Technique
    Question: I have been playing piano since childhood. I am a mediocre jazz player, strong harmonically, but weak technically. I don't play classical music....
    Legato Octaves
    Question: In bars 5-7 of the Capriccio in D minor by Brahms, the right hand is supposed to play legato octaves (the melody) while holding down a middle voice...
    Non-legato Scales
    Question: Hello, Have you any tips on developing a non-legato touch when playing, for example, Mozart's C major Sonata K. 545? I can only manage a very...
    Piano Chord Voicings
    Question: Hello Albert, Often bringing out or emphasizing particular notes within a chord is required, as in e.g. Schubert's Moment Musical, Op. 94 (D.780), ...
    Piano Exercises for Finger Independence
    Question: Hello Albert, Firstly, many thanks for the positive feedback you have given me to my questions which is a tremendous help. My question today...
    Piano Exercises for the Left Hand
    Question: I would like to know what exercises I can do to strengthen and train my left hand. I have been searching the internet and have only found a few,...
    Piano Exercises
    There is no more necessary evil in piano playing than piano exercises. I would love to be a musical idealist and deem all such exercises superfluous, as what...
    Piano Fingering
    Piano fingering is one of the most crucial aspects of learning the instrument, yet it is among the most overlooked. Here are seven of the most important...
    Piano Hand Position
    Question: How should you place your hand while you're playing the piano? Albert's reply: The hand should be curved in a smooth arc, roughly forming a...
    Piano Hand Positions
    Question: Where do your hands go when you are beginning to play a song? Albert's reply: You're referring primarily to hand position here, and secondarily to...
    Piano Pedal Problem
    Question: How would you stop a pupil lifting their heel when using the pedal? Albert's reply: To resolve this pedal problem you'll need to show your student...
    Piano Scales: 10 Expert Tips
    New: Major Scales for Piano for free download! A thorough study of piano scales is vital to playing musically and with confidence. Nonetheless, while...
    Piano Technique
    Piano technique is the ability to get the right sound at the right time out of the piano. It is the ability to realize music, how we interact with our...
    Piano "Wall" (Fallboard)
    Question: Hello Albert, First of all, thank you so much for this website I appreciate the work you put into all this just to help us!
    Playing Chords Together
    Question: I wonder how I can practice playing chords with both hands so the notes sound together. I'm talking about complex chords which need to be played...
    Playing Without Looking at One's Hands
    Question: How does a pianist learn to play the piano without always having to look at his hands as he plays as well as make those octave leaps on the piano...
    Practicing Technique vs. Music
    Question: Can give us an idea how to go about the mastery of technique? Is practicing technique more important that practicing songs?
    Practicing Technique vs. Music
    Question: Can give us an idea how to go about the mastery of technique? Is practicing technique more important that practicing songs?
    Scales in Thirds and Sixths
    Question: Hello Albert, Thank you for your reply mail regarding 'the fingering' for playing descending chromatic minor 6ths. It is most helpful and is going...
    Small Hands
    Question: Hi Albert, I am a retired female who has returned to the piano about three months ago. Haven't found a teacher yet so don't have access to answers...
    Strengthening the Left Hand
    Question: Hello Albert, Since I started playing the piano, I've mostly played Romantic-era music, where the left hand is just accompanying. In January I...
    The Most Important Rule of Piano Technique
    There is a rule of piano technique that is sure to do more to advance your piano playing than any other. All amateur pianists I have ever witnessed break...
    The Role of Piano Exercises
    Question: I am in my early 50's, an amateur pianist of intermediate skill level (e.g. I can play Grieg's Holberg suite; I doubt if I could play Beethoven's...
    "Thinking Fingers" Piano Exercises
    Question: Do you know of Guy Maier? If so do you know the piano exercises he and Bradshaw co-authored, 'Thinking Fingers?' The authors advocate practicing...
    Thumb Accuracy
    Question: Hello Albert, Thank you so much for the lessons. I am practising the scales as you suggested, e.g., started with B major and want to ask you for a...
    Wrist and Forearm Tension
    Question: I've been having some tightness and tension in my wrists and forearms lately. I'm aware that you struggled through similar problems with...

Piano Questions

    Comprehensive Piano Course
    Question: Read your email today. I am a trained musician and songwriter (guitar, voice, music major at college level) working as a physician/surgeon. I have...
    Finding a Good Teacher
    Question: Dear Albert, As you may remember from our previous correspondence, I am 59, an absolute beginner at piano, and I will soon be on the lookout for a...
    Getting Back to the Piano
    Question: Hey fellow pianists, I need some advice for the following problem. Due to circumstances (moving, making ends meet), I haven't practiced or gigged...
    Getting the Most out of Piano Lessons
    Question: I have private piano lessons that I started mainly to accompany harmony lessons. Although my main interest was harmony, and in the past I enrolled...
    How Hard Is It to Play Piano?
    Question: Is it hard to learn how to play the piano? Albert's reply: I think playing the piano is like learning English: I've heard it said that English is...
    Is Musical Talent Hereditary?
    Question: If the piano was invented in 1700 by Bartolomeo Cristofori how can people be born with the ability to play the piano without a lesson, or a...
    Keyboard vs. Piano
    Question: Finances keep me from getting a piano. Can a keyboard help while one is getting started? Albert's reply: Keyboards can certainly be fine for the...
    Keyboard vs. Piano
    Question: Finances keep me from getting a piano. Can a keyboard help while one is getting started? Albert's reply: Keyboards can certainly be fine for the...
    Overcoming Performance Anxiety
    Question: Hey Albert, I learned how to play piano myself, but learned the music theory before in band class. I haven't taken piano lessons before, so I...
    Performing and Nerves
    Question: Hi Mr. Frantz, Thank you for your site. I have a question which I was hoping you might help with: For some reason I'm facing a lot of nerves when...
    Piano Insurance
    Question: Can anyone recommend a source for piano insurance? I've heard of Heritage, etc., and the closest source I've found was pianoinsurance101.com and...
    Piano Lessons on DVD
    Question: Hello. When will your piano lessons on DVD be available? Thank you for your time. Albert's reply:The piano lessons on DVD are already available!...
    Piano Playing Skill Levels
    Question: Hi Albert, I often see references to piano skill classification, but how does an individual know at what skill level he/she is playing at, if the...
    Starting Piano Over
    Question: Hi there, Albert, I came across your fantastic Piano Site by pure chance although I don't really believe in chance. I had formal piano training as...
    Types of Pianos
    Question: Who invented the piano? When, and what types of pianos are there? Albert's reply: The piano was invented by an Italian harpsichord maker named...

Piano Theory

    Bach's Ornaments
    Question: Great Web Site! I am studying the Bach B Minor Invention BWV 786. In the Explication, the manner of execution of the trill is very clear, and yet...
    Bottom Keys of the Piano
    Question: What are the bottom notes of the piano? Albert's reply: Assuming you're using a standard full-sized, 88-key piano, the bottom key plays A.
    Chord Inversions
    Chord inversions are 'spellings' of a chord with a note other than the fundamental in the bass. Let's take a simple example:
    Circle of Fifths
    The Circle of Fifths depicts all key signatures in order of increasing sharps and flats:
    Common Chord Progressions
    This lesson will introduce you to the most common chord progressions, so widely used that they can be found in virtually every piece of tonal music...
    Difference Between Motives and Phrases
    Question: Hi Albert, Would you be so kind as to help me get clear on the meaning of 'motive'? Also can you differentiate a 'motive' from a 'phrase'? I want...
    Difference Between Pitches and Notes
    Question: What are the two pitches in music called? Albert's reply: There aren't just two pitches in music, there are as many pitches as there are colors.
    Distinguishing Minor from Major
    Question: How can I distinguish minor from major pitches? Albert's reply: Major and minor aren't properties of single notes or pitches but rather of groups...
    Double Expositions
    Question: Hello Albert, My question today is: Where did the idea of double expositions in piano concertos come from and how did it affect later compositions?
    Fugue Analysis
    Question: I'm starting to learn Bach's Fugue in D major from Book 1 of the Well-Tempered Clavier. I've read your extremely useful article, How to Learn a...
    How Much Music Theory?
    Question: How much theory is important when learning to play the piano? What's most important to know? Albert's reply: This is a critical question for all...
    How to Harmonize a Melody
    Question: Hey Albert, I am glad to hear of your success at the TED convention. My two-part question is one that may sound odd but 'How can I be sure what...
    How to Play a Piano Scale
    Piano scales are one of the biggest stumbling blocks for most piano students. In this lesson, you'll learn how to build any major scale at the piano;...
    How to Practice the "Moonlight" Sonata
    Question: Albert, I am very impressed with this website. It is sure to help many people as it has helped myself. I am going to be playing the 'Moonlight'...
    How to Tell the Key of a Song
    Question: Hello Albert, Many years ago, I was taught that by looking at the last note or notes of a piece of music, one could tell what key it is in, that is...
    Key Signature Chart
    This Key Signature Chart is designed to help you learn all the key signatures easily. It's written with increasing sharps and flats.
    Key Signatures and Accidentals
    Question: I am currently working on naming the keys of melodies with accidentals, then re-writing them with key signatures. How can I go about doing this? I...
    Key Signatures
    Key signatures are designed to simplify music notation by indicating the key. Without them, composers would be forced to write accidentals (sharps and flats)...
    Key vs Scale Intervals: Which to Learn?
    Question: I was about to memorize the number and types of intervals in the scales. Then I noticed this distinction between keys and scales.
    Learning Music Theory in Lessons
    Question: I am 67 years old and returned to piano less than a year ago. My teacher is a world class pianist who doesn't have much time for me. But then too I...
    Major and Minor Chords
    Question: How do I determine the difference between major and minor chords? Albert's reply: Major and minor chords are both triads. A triad consists of three...
    Major and Minor Keys
    Question: This may be very basic, but could give me a broad overview of major and minor keys and scales? My real question is, for every major there is a...
    Major Scales for Piano
    Here are all the major scales for piano, with all proper fingerings, for free download! Simply right-click the download icons or links and select 'Save' to...
    Melody Writing
    Question: What is the definition of the following? 1. Tendency tone 2. Stable tone 3. Active tone Albert's reply: These are harmonic terms having...
    Memorizing the Keys in Sheet Music
    Question: I've often read that to play the piano properly, you must be proficient in key identification (knowing what the key is, based on the number of...
    Memorizing the Keys
    Question: Hi Albert, I'm finding it nearly impossible to memorize the keys. (Which key has 5 sharps, which key has 4 flats, etc.) It may not help that I'm...
    Metric Accents
    Question: Hi, I just wanted to ask some short questions: 1. Explain the following time signatures and tell where the accents fall in each: 2/4, 3/4, 4/4.
    Minor Chords in the Major Scale
    Question: Hey, good day to you. I'm a bit confused when it comes to chords/chord progressions. The thing is if I'm in a scale, let's say G major, I would...
    Music Modes
    Why does a piano keyboard look the way it does? The answer has to do with music modes. The modes are types of scales. A scale is simply a specified sequence...
    Music Theory Intervals
    Question: I have a question about intervals. My assignment is to write the full name of each interval: I'm very confused. Can you help me?
    Music Theory Through Piano
    Question: My idea of teaching music theory through piano was always burning in my mind... at last I think I found the right place to learn more.
    Names of Piano Keys
    Question: Hi Albert, I'm just beginning to play. Is there such a thing as a paper/cardboard thing you put on the keyboard with the notes on it?
    Natural, Harmonic and Melodic Minor
    Question: Which minor scale... natural, harmonic, or melodic, should I be practicing on when playing the major scale, then to its relative minor scale?
    Piano Key Chart
    If you're just learning to find notes on the piano keyboard, this basic piano key chart is designed for you. The chart includes naturals (C, D, E, F, G, A, B),...
    Piano Notes Chart
    This simple piano notes chart is designed to help beginners find their way around the piano keyboard. If you're just getting familiar with the piano keyboard,...
    Piano Theory Book
    Question: Hello Albert, About theory, what book would you suggest to purchase please? I need a book which will carry me through to the highest level. Most...
    Piano Theory Courses
    Question: Is there a book or a course for sale because I'm guessing the free lessons are probably very basic and don't cover everything mentioned above.
    Piano Theory
    A piano is indispensible for learning music theory. Piano theory implies the use of the instrument, which in turn implies sound, which of course is what...
    Playing in Different Keys
    Question: Hi, I am wondering how to get better at playing pieces in different keys. Different keys have different chords, which have different fingerings....
    Sharps and Flats
    Question: How do you know if a note is a sharp? When the sharp sign (#) is next to the G clef and F clef, how do I know what notes in the music piece are...
    Sonata Form and Symphonic Form
    Question: Some time ago, I read your interesting article about 'Sonata Form' simplified. What's the relationship between sonata and symphony, both regarding...
    Sonata Form
    From the Italian sonare meaning simply 'to sound, ' the sonata has undergone enough changes throughout music history to fill several encyclopedic volumes, as...
    Sonatas and Sonata Form
    Question: I am confused about sonatas. I've read that sonata is a single-movement piece, but others say that it has several movements... or was it only a...
    The Major Scale
    Question: These are the questions that my music teacher asked me and I didn't quite know what he was trying to tell me. Here are the questions:
    Tonic in Music
    Question: What's a tonic? Albert's reply: The tonic is the first note of any scale. If the key is C major, then C is the tonic. If you're in A-flat major,...
    Transposing Music
    Question: Hello Albert. Thanks a lot for putting together this helpful website. My question regards transposing music. Would you say it is best to memorize a...
    Transposing Scales
    Question: I was wondering how to transpose C major into the key of F major, on scales. Albert's reply: Scales are the way to transpose! You have to make sure...
    Transposing to C Major
    Question: How can I transpose a hymn in any key into the key of C? My friend plays the organ by ear and can only play in the key of C, so I need to know how...
    What Is Music Theory?
    Question: I had been formally trained in piano quite a long ago for a short duration of time. I have not been so much in touch with it since then, but I have...
    Which Chords Do You Really Need to Know?
    Question: Hi Albert, What are the chords that I really, really need to know as an intermediate piano player? Here's my guess: Major, minor, diminished, ...

Piano Chord Chart

    A Chord
    The A major triad, more commonly called the A major chord or simply the A chord for short, consists of the notes A, C-sharp and E. Here it is on the treble...
    A-flat Chord
    The A-flat major triad, more commonly called the A-flat major chord or simply the A-flat chord for short, consists of the notes A-flat, C and E-flat. Here it...
    A Minor Chord
    The A minor triad, more commonly called the A minor chord, is a minor triad consisting of the notes A, C and E. Here it is on the bass clef staff:
    B Chord
    The B major triad, more commonly called the B major chord or simply the B chord for short, consists of the notes B, D-sharp and F-sharp. Here it is on the...
    B-flat Chord
    The B-flat major triad, more commonly called the B-flat major chord or simply the B-flat chord for short, consists of the notes B-flat, D and F. Here it is on...
    B-flat Minor Chord
    The B-flat minor triad, more commonly called the B-flat minor chord, is a minor triad consisting of the notes B-flat, D-flat and F. Here it is on the treble...
    B Minor Chord
    The B minor triad, more commonly called the B minor chord, is a minor triad consisting of the notes B, D and F-sharp. Here it is on the treble clef staff:
    C Chord
    The C major triad, more commonly called the C major chord or simply the C chord for short, is typically the first chord learned in music theory. Here it is on...
    C Minor Chord
    The C minor triad, more commonly called the C minor chord, is a minor triad consisting of the notes C, E-flat and G. Here it is on the treble clef staff:
    C-sharp Chord
    The C-sharp major triad, more commonly called the C-sharp major chord or simply the C-sharp chord for short, consists of the notes C-sharp, E-sharp and...
    C-sharp Minor Chord
    The C-sharp minor triad, more commonly called the C-sharp minor chord, is a minor triad consisting of the notes C-sharp, E and G-sharp. Here it is on the...
    D Chord
    The D major triad, more commonly called the D major chord or simply the D chord for short, consists of the notes D, F-sharp and A. Here it is on the treble...
    D-flat Chord
    The D-flat major triad, more commonly called the D-flat major chord or simply the D-flat chord for short, consists of the notes D-flat, F and A-flat. It is...
    D Minor Chord
    The D minor triad, more commonly called the D minor chord, is a minor triad consisting of the notes D, F and A. Here it is on the treble clef staff:
    E Chord
    The E major triad, more commonly called the E major chord or simply the E chord for short, consists of the notes E, G-sharp and B. Here it is on the treble...
    E-flat Chord
    The E-flat major triad, more commonly called the E-flat major chord or simply the E-flat chord for short, consists of the notes E-flat, G and B-flat. Here it...
    E-flat Minor Chord
    The E-flat minor triad, more commonly called the E-flat minor chord, is a minor triad consisting of the notes E-flat, G-flat and B-flat. Here it is on the...
    E Minor Chord
    The E minor triad, more commonly called the E minor chord, is a minor triad consisting of the notes E, G and B. Here it is on the treble clef staff:
    F Chord
    The F major triad, more commonly called the F major chord or simply the F chord for short, consists of the notes F, A and C. Here it is on the bass clef staff:
    F Minor Chord
    The F minor triad, more commonly called the F minor chord, is a minor triad consisting of the notes F, A-flat and C. Here it is on the bass clef staff:
    F-sharp Chord
    The F-sharp major triad, more commonly called the F-sharp major chord or simply the F-sharp chord for short, consists of the notes F-sharp, A-sharp and...
    F-sharp Minor Chord
    The F-sharp minor triad, more commonly called the F-sharp minor chord, is a minor triad consisting of the notes F-sharp, A and C-sharp. Here it is on the bass...
    G Chord
    The G major triad, more commonly called the G major chord or simply the G chord for short, consists of the notes G, B and D. Here it is on the bass clef staff:
    G-flat Chord
    The G-flat major triad, more commonly called the G-flat major chord or simply the G-flat chord for short, consists of the notes G-flat, B-flat and D-flat. It...
    G Minor Chord
    The G minor triad, more commonly called the G minor chord, is a minor triad consisting of the notes G, B-flat and D. Here it is on the bass clef staff:
    G-sharp Minor Chord
    The G-sharp minor triad, more commonly called the G-sharp minor chord, is a minor triad consisting of the notes G-sharp, B and D-sharp. Here it is on the bass...
    Piano Chord Chart
    The key-notes Piano Chord Chart is a solid, reliable and professional resource that will teach you the most important piano chords in a clear,...

The Piano

    Antique Piano Appraisal
    As emphasized in the articles Piano Values and Antique Piano Values, a piano's fair market value may not reflect its true quality as a musical instrument,...
    Antique Piano Bench
    For many, an antique piano bench can be a prized possession. From their elegantly carved, exotic woods to their varicolored fabrics, they can be a sight to...
    Antique Piano Value
    Question: I have a piano for sale that's very rare and I do have some information about it already: The reason I'm inquiring is that I think it's worth more...
    Antique Piano Values
    As discussed in the article Piano Values, a piano's musical value may well differ from its market value. This is particularly the case when determining...
    Baldwin Piano Age
    Question: What year is my Baldwin piano from? The serial number is 1518109. Thank you. Albert's reply: This Baldwin appears to be an Acrosonic from 1993, ...
    Blue Book of Pianos
    Many people looking to buy or sell a seek to appraise its value by means of a so-called 'blue book' of pianos. A blue book of pianos is a compilation of...
    Digital Piano Review
    key-notes is pleased to present its digital piano review section, which aims to help its readers understand the benefits and drawbacks of digital and...
    Famous Piano Players
    History is full of famous piano players in all musical genres. Since key-notes is dedicated primarily to classical music, this article focuses on the most...
    Harmony Museum Historic Piano
    Question: We have a piano dating probably from early 19th century (could be earlier) bearing the name F. Domeyer & Osterhold, Hamburg. We have no...
    Layout of Piano Keys
    A piano keyboard may look confusing at first, but the layout of piano keys is actually very simple. While it would be nearly impossible to identify...
    Light vs. Heavy Actions
    Question: Hi Albert, I have three pianos: two digital Rolands and a Steinway upright. All three have a very light touch. The problem is that after learning...
    Light vs. Heavy Actions
    Question: Hi Albert, I have three pianos: two digital Rolands and a Steinway upright. All three have a very light touch. The problem is that after learning...
    Piano Appraisal
    The purpose of piano appraisal is to determine a fair price for a piano. Fair market value should not be confused with a piano's worth as a musical instrument,...
    Piano Humidifier: What All Piano Owners Need to Know
    One of the most important factors influencing piano tuning stability is humidity. A piano humidifier is therefore an essential investment for all piano owners.
    Piano Pedal: A Blessing in Disguise!
    My piano's right pedal broke the other day. The piano pedal didn't break off or anything; it just got disconnected. Since it seems all the piano technicians...
    Piano Pedals
    What are all those piano pedals for, and how did they get there? This article explores the pedals and their history. The piano pedals have by no means...
    Piano Range
    Question: What is the full scale of the keyboard/piano, and what is the first note on the keyboard? Albert's reply: The first key on the standard, 88-key...
    Piano Values
    What factors determine piano values, and how much is your piano worth? While a piano, like anything else, is ultimately worth whatever a seller can get for it,...
    Pictures of Pianos
    Share your piano on key-notes's Pictures of Pianos page! Like people, pianos come in all shapes and sizes, and like pets, they can be an expression of our...
    Roland Digital Piano
    Although as a classical pianist I play an acoustic piano, there are people and situations for whom a digital piano is a practical solution, and I get asked...
    Steinway vs. Boston Pianos
    Question: Hi Albert, Thanks for this great site! My question is, I have a Yamaha upright that's about 20 years old and I'm thinking about buying a new piano....
    Steinway vs. Boston Pianos
    Question: Hi Albert, Thanks for this great site! My question is, I have a Yamaha upright that's about 20 years old and I'm thinking about buying a new piano....
    The Piano
    The piano is an unmusical instrument, the least musical of all instruments. It is by nature impersonal, a purely mechanical device. Its hammers are totally...
    Una Corda Pedal
    Question: What does U.C. mean? Albert's reply: U.C. stands for una corda and it refers to a piano's leftmost of the three piano pedals. It is also called the...
    Upright Piano Value
    Question: I have a Concord upright cabinet grand piano, serial #22580. I want to sell it but am not sure what to charge. I've been researching for a while...
    What Are the Notes on a Piano?
    Question: I was wondering, what are the notes on a piano? Albert's reply: I assume you're talking about the names of the keys... but they don't really have...
    Who Invented the Piano?
    It was a harpsichord maker named Bartolomeo Cristofori who invented the piano in 1700. Cristofori (pronounced kris-TOFF-or-ee) (1655-1731) was from Padua, in...
    Yamaha Digital Piano: A Pianist's Review of the AvantGrand
    I recently had an opportunity to play the AvantGrand, the new Yamaha digital piano that represents the current state of the art, and wanted to share my...

Miscellaneous

    A Middle-aged Mom
    Question: I learned to play piano back when I was 16 years of age and I learned to read piano notes. I haven't played in years (my own fault for not keeping...
    A Musician's Fitness Routine
    Question: I'm a music student—a piano student—and also I want to start a fitness program. Can it damage my piano technique? I mean, how can...
    Adult Piano Lessons: Seven Hidden Advantages
    It is impossible to count the number of times we piano teachers have heard, 'I wish I had learned piano as a child.' Adults assume that if they didn't learn...
    Beginning Piano Lessons: 7 Common Beginners' Mistakes
    When beginning piano lessons, most students make a number of significant mistakes. I've listed the most common among them to help you along. This list is...
    Dancing and Music
    Question: Your site is fascinating in that it defines what is very much 'the elephant in the room' when it comes to modern dance. Most—approximately 90...
    Earl Wild: An Encomium
    I was deeply saddened by the death of Earl Wild on January 23, 2010. Often described as the 'last Romantic, ' Wild enjoyed a career that spanned fully eight...
    How Much Musical Talent Do I Need?
    Question: Hi Albert, I was wondering what you would suggest for a person that doesn't really have any musical talent? My brother plays the guitar and now the...
    How to Discover Musical Interest in a Child
    Question: Hi Albert, My 14-year-old grandson will be spending a couple of weeks with me this summer, and I would like to find out if he has any interest in...
    How to Find a Piano Teacher
    Beginning piano students are in a poor position to evaluate teachers. They have as yet no yardstick by which to measure a teacher's skill; moreover, they...
    Just a Word of Thanks!
    Albert, Thank you for sharing your wisdom. After 2 years of piano lessons at 10 years old, I am finally back after almost 50 years. I never quit playing...
    Looking at Your Hands
    Question: Hi Albert, Excellent performance for the Japanese earthquake program. I noticed that you kept your eyes glued to the keyboard. My music teacher...
    Mastering Piano
    Question: In every area—technique, ear training, reading music, etc.—what's the progression in each, from beginning to mastery?
    Offline vs. Online Piano Lessons
    I received a most unusual question: Are you trying to kill piano teachers around the world?? You HAVE to know that one-on-one, in person instruction is...
    Offline vs. Online Piano Lessons
    I received a most unusual question: Are you trying to kill piano teachers around the world?? You HAVE to know that one-on-one, in person instruction is...
    Piano Course Recommendation
    Question: Dear Master Frantz: I am 72 years of age and do not know anything about musical notes or the piano. I've read that I still can learn if I have the...
    Piano Lesson Software
    In our information age, machines have replaced people and piano lesson software attempts to take the place of your neighborhood piano teacher. But is it...
    Piano Lessons for Beginners
    Piano lessons for beginners are very often overwhelming due to the myriad skills that playing the piano requires. There might not be another activity that...
    Piano Lessons Online
    Now that the internet is an integral part of life, piano lessons online are becoming very popular. I'd like to give you an honest review of what you can...
    Piano Self-Learning
    Question: Hi Albert, Thanks for this great site. I was wondering what you thought of an adult piano student studying on their own for a while, without a...
    Piano Style
    Question: I want my piano playing to be more stylish. I know I can play piano well but I'm already tired of listening to my style of playing. How can I improve?
    Starting Piano Again
    Question: Hello, I am new to this site, but like what I've seen. A little background about myself: I am a 48-year-old old female. I took piano lessons from...
    Starting Piano Anew
    Question: Hello Albert, Firstly I want to thank you for your marvelous website. I've only just discovered it a few days ago and it has already had an immense...
    Starting Piano Late
    Question: If I started learning how to play piano at the age of 13, is it bad? Will I ever learn to play piano like most pianists who started at a very young...
    Studying Music to Become a High School Teacher
    Question: Hi Albert, I am a 17-year-old musician and I have played the piano for about two years now. As a late starter music has anything but come easy to...
    Teaching Music
    Question: Hello Albert, What in your opinion is the best way to teach music, I mean instrumental music: individually or as a group? Albert's reply: There's...
    Teaching Piano Lessons
    Teaching piano lessons can be a highly rewarding profession, as well as a very frustrating one. I'd like to share some tips with aspiring piano teachers to...
    Teaching Yourself Piano
    Question: I'm 13 years old and I'm currently learning to play 'River Flows in You' myself and I don't have experience in playing keyboard. My goal was to...
    Tempo Rubato
    Question: How do you create a natural and organic rubato? Somebody suggested that I try to practice my melody line separately. I tried it but my rubato...
    What to Expect from Piano Lessons
    Question: Hi Albert, First of all, thank you for taking the time to run such an awesome site and provide so much detailed and helpful advice.

Albert Frantz

    Albert Frantz
    Albert Frantz began piano studies at the unusual age of seventeen—years after a childhood teacher proclaimed he would never be able to play the piano....
    Online Piano Lessons
    I'm pleased to announce the availability of online piano lessons with me personally, from anywhere in the world! After a series of successful tests, I've...
    Performances by Albert Frantz
    Here are selected performances by your teacher, Albert Frantz. I'll be adding to this list over time, so be sure to subscribe to this site to be informed of...

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